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Why is there more rejoicing on Purim than on any other holiday?

Why did the Hakhamim ordain that there should be more Simha (rejoicing) and Mishteh (drinking) on Purim than any other holiday? There is a Mashal (parable), in Ben Ish Hayil, about a king who got angry at two of his servants. He decreed that one of them should die or be redeemed with an enormous sum of money, whereas the other one should die with no option of redeeming himself.
 
They both went to the king begging and pleading that he should cancel the decree, but he refused to listen. When the first one saw that the king could not be swayed, he ceased trying to persuade him, and brought the large amount of money for redeeming himself, that the king had set, saying that it was worth it to save his life. The second servant, who had no option of redeeming himself, did not give up trying, because this was his only option. He begged, pleaded and cried out to the king day and night, till finally the king relented and set him free.

Even though the first servant's decree appeared lighter, it ended up costing him more. The second one's sentence appeared much harsher, but in the end was the lighter of the two since he received no punishment.

The same is true in the story of Purim. The Jewish people saw all the gates slam shut in front of them. There were no more options available to them save for crying out to G-d from the depths of their hearts. They had nothing left to rely on, except the mercy of Heaven. In this way, they can be likened to the second servant.

In the case of Pesah (Passover), there were also bad decrees from Pharaoh and which also ended with the Jewish people finding salvation, but a price was nevertheless paid. Jewish babies were slaughtered, newborn Jewish males were thrown into the river and there was the hardship of the slavery. Their salvation was not like the salvation celebrated in Purim. In Egypt there was hope of finding solutions in natural ways; perhaps they would have girls, or if a boy was born, perhaps he could be hidden, and so on. Since they were relying on these natural solutions, they were compared to the first servant, therefore their salvation came at a price.

Hakham Yoseph Hayyim, 'a"h, comments that whenever there is any decree on the Jewish people, or any hardship, their salvation can occur at the blink of an eye. It all depends on their complete and intense faith in G-d and the extent to which their hearts are broken. If their faith is pure and complete and they don't rely on some other natural salvation, as soon as they call out to Him He will answer them fully.

Taken from the writings of Hakham Ya'aqob Menashe.
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